As researchers assess alternative firefighting formulations, they must consider their potential long- and short-term impact to the environment. Current projects are addressing impacts of commercially available and developmental PFAS-free firefighting foam formulations to several species, including but not limited to avian, mammalian, and reptilian species.

Several PFAS compounds are known to be persistent and bioaccumulative. It will be important to have a better understanding of the potential risks that alternative formulations may pose, allowing an informed decision on best practices for testing and training as the DoD moves away from PFAS formulations.