In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the injection of strong oxidants into the subsurface to destroy organic chemicals of concern and remediate a site to a risk-based cleanup goal. ISCO, with one or more oxidant, can be implemented alone or in combination with other remedial technologies. Though the chemistry involved is relatively simple, the technology is not easy to implement. The subsurface environment can be difficult to control, and it can be challenging to achieve adequate distribution of the oxidants within the subsurface. In many cases, ISCO requires site-specific data that may not be available from typical site characterization investigations. Building on past SERDP research and ESTCP demonstrations, new tools are now available to enhance the site-specific engineering of ISCO for remediation of contaminated groundwater and help ensure more predictable, cost-effective performance.

Technology Practices Manual

Dr. Robert Siegrist from the Colorado School of Mines and his team have developed an ISCO Technology Practices Manual (TPM) to enable cost-effective application of ISCO technologies to clean up contaminant source zones and groundwater plumes.

The frequently asked questions (FAQ) guide addresses some common issues associated with ISCO implementation, while the case history analysis and database incorporate 242 ISCO case studies, as well as the Database for ISCO (DISCO), an interactive tool that uses the case studies, coupled with site conditions and contaminants, to help determine if ISCO can be effective at a particular location. The technology practices assessment includes supplemental information used in the development of the TPM.

The main component of the TPM is the e-protocol, a decision support tool to assist users in making informed decisions about implementing ISCO. The e-protocol consists of flow diagrams as well as look up tables and spreadsheet calculations that guide the user through the evaluation and design of ISCO, with the ultimate goal of improving the state of the practice.

An on-demand video of a short course presented in December 2010 at the SERDP and ESTCP Symposium highlights the TPM and describes how to take advantage of its features.

The Technology Practices Manual is available at using 200623 as the Search Phrase. To view the on-demand video, visit Technical questions may be directed to Dr. Robert Siegrist, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, at (303) 384-2158 or


In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, the latest volume in the Remediation Technology Monograph Series, supports an ISCO standard of practice by providing a review of the state-of-the-art on in situ chemical oxidation. Released in March, this monograph was written by several leading experts and edited by Dr. Robert Siegrist of the Colorado School of Mines, Dr. Michelle Crimi of Clarkson University, and Dr. Thomas Simpkin of CH2M HILL.

The monograph is based on a decade of intensive research, development, and demonstrations funded by SERDP, ESTCP, and others, and on lessons learned from commercial field applications. Initial chapters cover the fundamentals of using various oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide, permanganate, persulfate, and ozone. The authors describe the evolution and current state of the science, provide a summary of current cost and performance information, and outline key points for practitioners and managers to consider when using ISCO. Subsequent chapters detail the principles and practices of ISCO for groundwater remediation, and the final chapter provides insight into future directions for ISCO and research breakthroughs and needs.

In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation serves as a reference for decision makers, practicing engineers, and hydrologists who select, design, and operate remedial systems, as well as researchers seeking to improve the state of the art.

To obtain a copy of the monograph, visit