The Science Programs Office of the Ecological Society of America (ESA), which has access to a wide range of expertise on ecosystem services and forest ecology through the 10,000 members of ESA, was tasked by SERDP with preparing an assessment of the state of knowledge regarding forest decline in the Southeast, summarizing the current science, identifying and prioritizing gaps in knowledge, and providing guidance to resource managers to address the issue. A workshop comprised of 44 researchers and managers was held for the exchange of information and to determine the degree of consensus on the nature and extent of the problem. Participants discussed several issues regarding the forest health/decline problem, including the underlying causes of the decline; whether they differ across the region and how; and the short- and long-term management action plans that could help minimize the impact of a potential forest health problem. An overview of the needs and recommendations resulting from the workshop can be found in the Workshop Report.