Fire is uniquely present on military training and testing lands as an element of military land-use since mission readiness requires the delivery of ordnance and pyrotechnics. DoD has become a national leader in wildland fire research through the current suite of SERDP and ESTCP research projects, referred to collectively as the “DoD Wildland Fire Science Initiative.” Fire can be one of the most effective ecological processes for restoring historically degraded lands to functioning ecosystems, but the ecological processes are complex and not well understood. SERDP and ESTCP investments in wildland fire research promote co-production of management-relevant science between fire managers and researchers with a focus on next-generation fire behavior and smoke dispersion models.