Thermal treatment is a destructive process for treatment of PFAS-impacted matrices, and as such, is of great interest for full scale applications. Current thermally-based treatment approaches are energy intensive and require high temperature (1000°C) incineration or disposal of concentrated PFAS. As more studies have elucidated the extent of PFAS in the environment, it is clear our understanding of these treatment processes for PFAS-laden material can be improved. SERDP and ESTCP efforts are focused on developing a mechanistic understanding of thermal processes for PFAS destruction and on conducting pilot scale applications of these processes.