The objective of this Statement of Need (SON) was to develop an improved understanding of the ecotoxicity of chemical mixtures associated with the release of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF), specifically mixtures of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) found in environmental media. Specifically, the goal was to address the following research needs:

  • Produce data to determine the toxicity of PFAS mixtures considering mode of action, bioaccumulation kinetics, critical effects as well as cumulative effect on the quantitative does-response for applicable model wildlife receptors.
  • Develop or apply a mixtures methodology for predicting potential toxicity including toxic endpoints of PFAS mixtures considering the dose-response for specific PFAS, environmental media, and/or ecological receptors.
  • Identify PFAS mixtures of most concern in order to enhance risk management decisions and address risk communication concerns.

The projects listed below were selected to address the objectives of this SON. Additional information on individual projects can be found by clicking the project title.

Research should provide knowledge of the potential environmental risk of PFAS associated with AFFF and assist in the development of appropriate site-specific risk assessments and the decisions related to mitigation of exposures and/or future environmental cleanup.