The primary research objective of this project is to measure and optimize the physical and chemical properties of the siloxane surfactants with selective additives that have previously demonstrated to quench the 28ft2 gasoline pool fire. The formulation will be made in various liquid concentrates (3%-15%), and their viscosity, miscibility with water, and fire-quenching time will be measured. Further, the stability of the concentrate and pre-mix solution, stratification, precipitation, and corrosion rates will be evaluated. In addition, extensive environmental impact studies will be conducted including, aquatic toxicity, chemical oxygen demand, and biological oxygen demand. The modeling of the siloxane formulation will also be conducted to further understand the mechanism of fire-quenching action of the formulations. The results will provide further insight to develop similar fluorine-free products to replace aqueous film forming foam (AFFF).

Technology Description

Several fluorine-free foams are available in the market today for a variety of fire-fighting applications, and they degrade quickly in the environment. However, they do not meet the performance goals of the MILPRF-24385 standard. In this project, a potential siloxane surfactant will be evaluated for performance enhancement with the aim of meeting the military standard.


This project will provide the required performance validation data for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)-free foams to replace AFFF. This project also offers the opportunity to learn the mode of action of PFAS-free foams. The main intent of this project is to maximize the capabilities of the new PFAS-free foam products in Department of Defense firefighting applications.