Treatment technologies are needed to address per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in soil and groundwater. Significant investments have been made and are planned to develop and improve technologies for PFAS remediation, drinking water treatment, and waste management. In this environment of research and development, lines of evidence and best practices to assess the effectiveness of PFAS treatment technologies were developed.

Technical Approach

In collaboration with PFAS researchers and practitioners, the project team developed lines of evidence, best practices, and other considerations for assessing PFAS treatment technology performance. The project was organized into three tasks:

  1. Task 1 consisted of a literature review and development of draft lines of evidence for evaluating technology removal mechanisms and overall success, considering various stages of research and development (including proof of concept, treatability studies, pilot-scale, and full-scale). Lines of evidence were prioritized and discussed by the project team and technical reviewers.
  2. During Task 2, the team refined draft lines of evidence by soliciting input from PFAS researchers and practitioners. A mini expert workshop was convened at the 2018 SERDP Symposium to solicit input from DoD decision makers, academic researchers, practitioners, and regulators. Lines of evidence were further developed in discussions with the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) PFAS team members and project technical reviewers. Ultimately, lines of evidence, best practices, and other considerations were identified.
  3. As Task 3, a technology evaluation checklist and fact sheets were developed to synthesize results and identify areas of uncertainty/research priorities. These tools can be used to critically evaluate and strengthen research plans and assess the current state-of-knowledge for technology performance.


The results of the three tasks are summarized in the guidance document that describes each line of evidence, best practices, and other considerations, provides a myriad of examples from relevant peer-reviewed literature, and provides checklists to guide assessments of PFAS treatment technologies.


This project developed clearer guidance, metrics, and checklists for researchers and practitioners to evaluate the fundamental success of PFAS treatment technologies at various stages of technology development. Project results may be relevant to other chemicals of concern beyond PFAS. (Project Completion - 2021)