This project will develop and apply a plug-in electric vehicle fleet management and optimization tool and implement the hardware needed for a DoD installation to conduct the complex task of managing an electrified fleet of non-tactical vehicles. The demonstration at Los Angeles Air Force Base, California, will enable DoD fleet managers to schedule charging and discharging of electric vehicles to take optimal economic advantage of demand response and ancillary services (DR+AS) markets, while ensuring the vehicles operate in conjunction with other base electrical loads and generation resources to maintain energy security and a minimal carbon footprint at the installation.

Technology Description

For the demonstration, Bosch's eMobility Solution fleet management software currently under development will provide the necessary additional front-end PEV fleet management tools. Specifications for vehicle and charging hardware with the necessary capabilities will be provided to the Air Force. Additionally, OpenADR capable hardware will be installed allowing the base to participate in DR+AS markets. Specifically, capability will be installed to permit participation in several markets, including the California Independent System Operator's regulation up and down market. Optimization capability based on LNBL's Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER‐CAM) will be developed to find optimal scheduling for the fleet. eMobility will request these schedules and implement them when received. The entire system, called PEV-Opt, will meet the security requirements of the host base.


The overall security and environmental benefits of reducing fossil‐fuel powered non‐tactical military vehicle fleets are clear; however, managing PEV fleets is a challenge. Vehicle charging can be costly if not managed well relative to the prevailing utility tariff and other constraints, while the fast responding energy storage capability of vehicle batteries can provide valuable services to help satisfy building, local base, and wider grid services. Specifically, while vehicles individually are not large electricity loads or sources, when aggregated or when integrated with the buildings at which they are interconnected, they can become a controlled entity able to ameliorate the effects of variable local resources and loads, and provide DR+AS service to the local utility and the wider power system around it. (Anticipated Project Completion - 2021)


Nicholas DeForest, MacDonald, Jason and Black, Douglas, “Day ahead optimization of an electric vehicle fleet providing ancillary services in the Los Angeles Air Force Base vehicle-to-grid demonstration,” Applied Energy, Jul. 2017., doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.07.069)